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APP内阅读 阅读能力如何提升
摘要:我们都知道“得阅读者得天下”。阅读理解是考查学生通过阅读短文获取信息、解决问题的能力,不管是语文,还是英语学科,都是中考试题中的“重中之重”。初中英语学业考试要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告和广告等,主要检测学生在阅读过程中获取细节信息的能力、归纳主旨的能力和演绎推理的能力。因此找到合适地做题方法与相应地练习重点对于有效提高阅读理解有着至关重要的帮助。首先我们来一起分析探讨一下那些技巧我们可以应用到阅读理解中。

我们都知道“得阅读者得天下”。阅读理解是考查学生通过阅读短文获取信息、解决问题的能力,不管是语文,还是英语学科,都是中考试题中的“重中之重”。初中英语学业考试要求考生能读懂书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文段以及公告和广告等,主要检测学生在阅读过程中获取细节信息的能力、归纳主旨的能力和演绎推理的能力。因此找到合适地做题方法与相应地练习重点对于有效提高阅读理解有着至关重要的帮助。首先我们来一起分析探讨一下那些技巧我们可以应用到阅读理解中。


细节理解题

这类题型特点一般可以在原句中找到正确选项;或是经过处理稍作改变使用不同的词语或句型表达相同的意思。 同时还会出现正确选项是由文章中2-3个句子连续推导或者合并而成,这就需要对上下文逻辑关系地准确把握。选项中会涉及诸多干扰如:

张冠李戴型 干扰项偷换主语或者将作者观点与其他人观点混淆起来

偷梁换柱型 干扰项偷换动词或者在程度、范围上有些变动,导致改变原文句意

以偏概全 干扰项与文章内容部分相符,但以点代面、以偏概全

无中生有 干扰项本身是正确的,但与题干问题毫不相干

似是而非 干扰项似乎有一定道理,但在原文中没有相关支持信息


例题(1)A survey has been published which shows that British people don’t like their neighbors very much. 80% of the people who took part in the survey feel that their neighbors hardly pay attention to other’s feelings.

25% don’t talk to the people who live next door and 10% don’t even know their names.

In fact, one million people in Britain would like to move because they don’t get along well with their neighbors.

文章后面有这样一道题:How many percent of people never talk to their neighbors?

A. 80% B. 25% C. 10% D. 90%

解析:根据该段中的句子“25% don’t talk to the people who live next door”可以知道正确答案为B。“the people who live next door”指的就是neighbors,题目正是用了不同的词语或单词来代替文章中的原句,属于对细节的加工处理。


例题(2)The biggest challenge now is to find ways to bring the satellites back to the earth after a year or two. Otherwise, major highways of space junk could gradually increase as CubeSats become more common.

60. According to the passage, which of the following is true?

A. CubeSats could possible cause pollution in space.

B. A few kids will send applications for the project.

C. Scientists designed CubeSats for the kid to play with

D. Students can’t design satellites without college education.

解析:此题考查的是细节事实题,这道题是单词的同义转换,问题当中用的是“junk” 垃圾这个单词,答案中用的是“pollution”污染这个词,虽然形式不一样,但是却表达的是一个意思,属于对细节的加工处理。


例题(3) When you cough or sneeze, you’d better turn your head away from others and cover your month with the full part of your hand. And then, you should say, “Excuse me”.

51.When you cough or sneeze, you should _______

A. touch everything B. cover your mouth

C. point out to the kids D. pass the germs to others

解析:此题较简单我们可以直接从原文中找出答案,答案只是对原文进行了同义转述,属于对 细节的加工处理。


二、主旨大意题

先看问题,看是否有和主旨相关的题目,了解题目类别和提问方式。再看文章首尾和各段开头,找出主题句或通过浏览全文,抓住关键字眼,把握主旨。寻找文章主旨大意的方法如下:

先找文章主题:找反复出现的单词或短语;找重复出现表达同一意思的词;再找主旨句:

A.首尾段,首尾句。

B.首段出现疑问句或设问句时,对该问题的解答就是主旨大意。

C.段落中出现转折句时,该句很可能是主旨句。

这类题目需要对文章有整体性的把握,建议重要后做。

例: There are many wetlands(湿地) in China and some of them have become the world’s important wetlands. The Chinese Yellow Sea Wetlands are among them. They are in Yancheng, Jiangsu Province.

They are home for many different kinds of birds and animals. The world’s largest Milu Deer Nature Reserve(自然保护区) is in them. More than 700 milu deer live freely there.

There are not many red-crowned cranes in the world, but every winter you can see some in the Red-crowned Cranes Nature Reserve in the Yellow Sea Wetlands.

The temperature in the wetlands is usually neither too high nor too low. There is a lot of rain and sunshine, too.

They are really good places for wildlife(野生生物)。 Offering food and home for some special kinds of animals and birds is not the only reason why we need to protect wetlands.

Wetlands are important because they also prevent flood. But some people want to change the wetlands to make more space for farms and buildings. This means there will be less and less space for wildlife.

Luckily, more and more people are beginning to realize the important of wetlands and wildlife. Every year, on February 2nd, many activities are held to tell people more about wetlands.

1. The best title for the passage is _______.

A. China’s Wetlands Have All Entered the World’s List

B. Wetlands—Home for Wildlife and Human Beings

C. Special Animals in the Chinese Yellow Sea Wetlands

D. Wetlands—Valuable Recourses(珍贵资源) of Land on the Earth

答案:B

解题思路:这篇文章主要讲的是中国的湿地,现在已经成为世界非常重要的湿地,它们是野生动植物和人类的栖息地。故本文的标题选B。


三. 推理判断题

推理判断题是阅读理解题中难度较大的一类题。解决这类题时不仅要弄懂文章的字面意思,还必须要读懂字里行间隐藏的深层意思,通过作者的所给的提示结合文章进行归纳、综合分析,做出合理的推理判断。此外,所做出的推理必须忠于原文,不能随意主观推断.

例题分析:

例题(1)In this study,Cohen's team interviewed 193 adults every day for two weeks. During the interviews ,the people told researchers about the happy or sad feelings they had that day.

After the two weeks,the people were given colds by doctors and had to stay alone in a room for six days.

The results showed that everyone in the study was equally likely to get ill.But for people who said they feel happy during the research peroid , theie illness were less serious and lasted of a shorter time.(出自2010年广州市中考阅读理解B篇)

51、Which of the following was NOT a part of the study?

A.People talked about their feeling every day. B.People were kept alone for six days.

C.People were given colds by doctors. D.People were made to feel happy.

解析:题目是问哪个内容不是研究中的项目。根据原文中的“...the people told researchers about the happy or sad feelings they had that day.”和“the people were given colds by doctors and had to stay alone in a room for six days.”得出选项ABC 都是符合原文意思的,而选项D与原文无关,因此该题答案应为D。

例题(2)(2011河南省中考A)

When my son, Mark, was in the third grade, he saved all his pocket money for over three months to buy holiday presents. The third Saturday in December Mark said he had made his list and had twenty dollars in his pocket.

I drove him to a nearby supermarket. Mark picked up a hand basket and went in while I waited and watched in the car. It took Mark over 45 minutes to choose his presents. Finally he came to the checkout counter (交款处) and reached into his pocket for his money. It was not there! There was a hole in his pocket, but no money. Mark stood there holding his basket, tears falling down his face.

Then a surprising thing happened. A woman came up to Mark and took him in her arms. "You would help me a lot if you let me pay for you," said the woman. "It would be the most wonderful gift you could give me. I only ask that one day you will pass it on. When you grow up, I would like you to find someone you can help. When you help others, 1 know you will feel as good about it as I do now."

Mark took the money, dried his tears and ran back to the checkout counter as fast as he could. That year we all enjoyed our gifts almost as much as Mark enjoyed giving them to us.

I would like to say '"thank you" to that very kind woman, and tell her that four years later, Mark went house to house collecting blankets (毯子) and clothes for the homeless people in the fire. And I want to promise her that Mark will never forget to keep passing it on.

48. What happened to Mark in the supermarket?

A. His gifts were stolen. B. He broke his basket.

C. He lost his money. D. He lost his way.

49. Why did the writer want to say '’thank you" to the woman?

A. Because she bought Mark a nice present.

B. Because she always paid money for others.

C. Because she collected clothes for the homeless.

D. Because she taught Mark to help people in need.

解析:48. 答案:C。根据文章中“reached into his pocket for his money. It was not there! There was a hole in his pocket, but no money.”可知Mark把钱给丢了。

49. 答案:D。从文章中的重要后一段可知,Mark在接受了那位妇女的帮助之后,努力地帮助那些需要帮帮助的人。

Tips:对于不能够从原文中直接找到答案推断题,要注意

1、以原文为依据,不掺杂个人意见,要客观不要主观。

要克服“我认为…怎么样”的观点。

2、答案是比出来的。答案不选对的,只选重要好的。因为,有时候四个答案都是对的。答案不选对的,只选重要好的。比答案的原则是:好的>不知道的;不知道的>不对的

3、注意绝对化的词。

如果答案选项中出现绝对化的词,比如:all,always,never,nothing,every 等等,除非文章当中使用了该类词汇,否则,一般都要排除。

4、答案要避免以点带面,以偏盖全。

尤其是多个选项都有道理,难以挑选正确答案的时候,要注意选择重要符合题目要求的一个。

5、“傻瓜”原则。

文章中没有提到的就当作不知道,不要枉自猜测,自作聪明。一切以文章内容为准。


四.猜测词义题

猜测词义题是要求学生根据上下文确定某一特定的词或者短语的准确含义。

其出题形式为:生词生义; 熟词生义; 代词词义

例题分析

例题(一)根据定义或解释猜测词义

A bag is useful and the word “bag” is useful. It gives us some interesting phrases(短语). One is “ to let the cat out of the bag”. It is the same as “to tell a secret”….

Now when someone lets out (泄漏) a secret, he “lets the cat out of the bag.”

John “lets the cat out of the bag” means he ______.

A. makes everyone know a secret B. the woman bout a cat

C. buys a cat in the bag D. sells the cat in the bag

解析:在这篇文章里,“let the cat out of the bag”虽然是一个新出现的短语,但紧接着后面就给出解释It is the same as “to tell a secret”根据这一解释,我们就可判断出正确答案应为A。

例题(二)根据情景和逻辑进行判断

As they go around town, the police help people. Sometimes they find lost children. They take the children home. If the police see a fight, they put an end to it right away. Sometimes people will ask the police how to get to a place in town. The police can always tell the people which way to go. They know all the streets and roads well.

In the text, “put an end to” means “______”.

A. stop B. cut C. kill D. fly

解析:根据文章所提供的情景,如果警察看到有人在打架,他们肯定会去制止。因为制止打架斗殴是警察的职责。根据这一推理,答案应该是A。

例题(三)根据并列或同位关系猜测词义

There is a place on our earth where hot water and steam come up under the ground. It is on a large island in the Pacific Ocean. The island is North Island in New Zealand.

What does the word “steam” mean in Chinese?

A. 自来水 B. 大气 C. 冰川 D. 蒸汽

解析:从语法上看,steam和hot water是并列关系,我们就以断定这两种东西是相关的,是同一类物质。在所给第四个选项中只有“蒸汽”有这种可能。

例题(四)根据背景和常识判断

The following morning when I went to see how my captive (caged) bird was doing, I discovered it on the floor of the cage, dead. I was terribly surprised! What had happened!

I had taken extremely care of my little bird. Arthur Wayne, the famous ornithologist, who happened to be visiting my father at the time, hearing me crying over the death of my bird, explained what had happened.

“A mother mockingbird, finding her young in a cage, will sometimes bring it poison berries(毒莓). She thinks it better for her young to die than to live in captivity.”

An ornithologist is probably a person who ______.

A. studies birds B. loves creatures C. majors in habits D. takes care of trees

解析:Ornithologist 这个词从来没有见到过,但是通过他的语言我们可以判断出这是一个对鸟很有研究的人。我很爱鸟,把鸟装在笼子里,并细心照料,而且鸟的母亲也飞过来喂这只鸟,但这只鸟却死了,我很不理解。到我家来的这个人给我详细解释了鸟死的原因,说明这个人非常懂鸟。据此,我们可以断定答案影视A。

例题(五)根据上下文已知部分进行逻辑上的推理

But one thing was important to Sparky — drawing,He was proud of his artwork.In senior high school ,he sent some cartoons to the editors of the yearbook but he was turned down.Sparky was hurt. But he didn't lose hope because he believed in his ability.He decided to become a professional artist.(出自2011年白云区一模B篇)

The underlined words“turned down”(in paragraph 4)most probably mean “__________”

A. hired B. chosen C. refused D. Accepted

解析:根据文章所提供上文内容“he sent some cartoons to the editors of the yearbook”,以及下文内容“Sparky was hurt. But he didn't lose hope because he believed in his ability”,从中判断turn down 的含义是“拒绝”。答案应该是C。

例题(六)运用构词法进行猜测

如:The colors of Hawaii in summer are unforgettable.

forget意为“忘记”,un为否定前缀,因此unforgettable就是“令人难忘”之意。

前缀或后缀-ful(形容词后缀), -less(无,没有,构成形容词), -ly(副词后缀), un-(不,非,未),dis-(相反,否定)re-(重新)

appear disappear, agree disagree, tie untie, happy unhappy, careful, careless, hope hopeless, comfortable uncomfortable